high pressure o idation of refractory gold minerals

Pressure oxidation - Wikipedia

Pressure Oxidation is a process for extracting gold from refractory ore.. The most common refractory ores are pyrite and arsenopyrite, which are sulfide ores that trap the gold within them.Refractory ores require pre-treatment before the gold can be adequately extracted. The pressure oxidation process is used to prepare such ores for conventional gold extraction processes such as cyanidation.

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(PDF) Pressure oxidation of double refractory gold ...

The pressure oxidation approach that allows obtaining high gold recovery from double refractory materials was proposed. $/7$ : The chemical compositions of the concentrates

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Sun High Pressure Oxidation Of Refractory Gold Minerals

Sun High Pressure Oxidation Of Refractory Gold Minerals. Biooxidation Biooxidation uses sulfur consuming bacteria in a water solution to remove sulfur Pressure oxidation Utilizes oxygen and heat under pressure in a liquid medium to effect oxidation of sulfur by way of a controlled chemical reaction High pressure autoclaves . Send Email: [email protected] Send Inquiry Inquiry Online. Hammer ...

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Basic Iron Sulphate in Pressure Oxidation Processing

PRESSURE OXIDATION PROCESSING . OF REFRACTORY GOLD CONCENTRATES IF NOT HANDLED APPROPRIATELY . C.A. FLEMING –– SGS MINERALS. ABSTRACT. Refractory gold concentrates often contain sub-microscopic gold that is encapsulated within the crystal matrix of iron sulphide minerals such as pyrite, pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite. To recover the gold, the host mineral

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Process of refractory gold mines,gold mines containing ...

Characteristics and risks of refractory gold mines. 11-11-20; 133 Views; icon 0 . The main methods used in industrial production for the treatment of refractory gold ore or gold concentrate are roasting, pressure oxidation and bacterial oxidation. All these methods have many years of production experience.

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(PDF) Pressure oxidation of double refractory gold ...

The pressure oxidation approach that allows obtaining high gold recovery from double refractory materials was proposed. $/7$ : The chemical compositions of the concentrates

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Developments in the pretreatment of refractory gold ...

The high-pressure nitric acid oxidation process is shown in Figure 1. LI, D.-X. Developments on the pretreatment of refractory gold minerals by nitric acid. World Gold Conference 2009,The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2009. Developments in the pretreatment of refractory gold minerals by nitric acid D.-X. LI

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Basic Iron Sulphate in Pressure Oxidation Processing

PRESSURE OXIDATION PROCESSING . OF REFRACTORY GOLD CONCENTRATES IF NOT HANDLED APPROPRIATELY . C.A. FLEMING –– SGS MINERALS. ABSTRACT. Refractory gold concentrates often contain sub-microscopic gold that is encapsulated within the crystal matrix of iron sulphide minerals such as pyrite, pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite. To recover the gold, the host mineral

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Process of refractory gold mines,gold mines containing ...

Characteristics and risks of refractory gold mines. 11-11-20; 133 Views; icon 0 . The main methods used in industrial production for the treatment of refractory gold ore or gold concentrate are roasting, pressure oxidation and bacterial oxidation. All these methods have

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Recovery Refractory Resources - SGS

options for refractory gold ores: roasting; pressure oxidation; bio-oxidation; and ultra-fine grinding. In roasting, pressure oxidation and bio-oxidation, the iron sulphide minerals are oxidised to create sulphur dioxide (SO 2) gas in the case of roasting, or sulphate ions in pressure oxidation and bio-oxidation. The iron component is oxidised to the trivalent state and forms solid compounds ...

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Pressure Oxidation of a Refractory Sulfide Concentrate

Significant advances have taken place in the treatment of refractory gold ores and concentrates during the past decade. In sulfide ores, pyrite is the most common host mineral for gold. Studies by Gasparrini (1983) showed that gold occurs in pyrite as native gold or electrum in all sizes and forms. Arsenopyrite is probably the second most common host for gold and forms similar associations ...

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Gold extraction - Wikipedia

A "refractory" gold ore is an ore that has ultra fine gold particles disseminated throughout its gold occluded minerals. These ores are naturally resistant to recovery by standard cyanidation and carbon adsorption processes. These refractory ores require pre-treatment in order for cyanidation to be effective in recovery of the gold. A refractory ore generally contains sulfide minerals, organic ...

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A FUNDAMENTAL STUDY OF THE ACIDIC PRESSURE OXIDATION

2.3 Pretreatment of Refractory Sulfidic Gold Ores 15 2.3.1 Pressure Oxidation 18 2.4 Acidic Pressure Oxidation of Iron and Arsenic Sulfide Minerals 29 References 38 CHAPTER 3 FUNDAMENTALS OF OXIDATION 45 3.1 Thermodynamics 45 3.2 Kinetic Considerations 59 3.2.1 Kinetic Model 64 References 72 CHAPTER 4 EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM 75 4.1 Materials 75 4.1.1 Minerals 75

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Refractory ore trouble Russian gold miners - Mining

28/09/2016  Using Petropavlovsk’s proposed pressure oxidation facility as an example, the company said in 2012 it expected processing costs at its Pioneer mine of US$9.4 per tonne for non-refractory ore and US$12.3 per tonne for refractory ore. The company also budgeted US$500 million for the POX hub’s development. Not using special processing for the complex ore lodes also doesn’t seem viable ...

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Pressure o idation autoclave au-Henan Mining Machinery

Autoclave and Pressure Oxidation Mining and Minerals. Autoclave and Pressure Oxidation Pressure oxidation was developed for processing refractory ores where gold is occluded in the sulfide minerals, typically pyrite or arsenopyrite Oxidation of the sulfides at elevated temperatures and pressures liberates the gold, allowing it to be economically recovered by conventional circuits

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Pressure Oxidation - Caldera Engineering

Pressure Oxidation (POX) is a process used to extract gold, copper, zinc, molybdenum, and uranium from refractory ore bodies. The POX process utilizes elevated temperatures (roughly 230 degrees Celsius), elevated pressures (roughly 35 bar or 510 psi), and oxygen to liberate the minerals from refractory

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Refractory gold reserves: Challenges and opportunities for ...

Refractory gold reserves, which require more sophisticated treatment methods in order to achieve oxide-ore recovery rates, correspond to 24 percent of current gold reserves and 22 percent of gold resources worldwide (Exhibit 1). Despite offering a higher grade, these ores can only be processed using specific pretreatment methods such as ultrafine grinding, bio oxidation, roasting, or pressure ...

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A FUNDAMENTAL STUDY OF THE ACIDIC PRESSURE OXIDATION

2.3 Pretreatment of Refractory Sulfidic Gold Ores 15 2.3.1 Pressure Oxidation 18 2.4 Acidic Pressure Oxidation of Iron and Arsenic Sulfide Minerals 29 References 38 CHAPTER 3 FUNDAMENTALS OF OXIDATION 45 3.1 Thermodynamics 45 3.2 Kinetic Considerations 59 3.2.1 Kinetic Model 64 References 72 CHAPTER 4 EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM 75 4.1 Materials 75 4.1.1 Minerals 75

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Minerals Metallurgical Processing

Refractory gold concentrates often contain submicroscopic gold that is encapsulated within the crystal matrix of iron sulfide minerals, such as pyrite, pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite. To recover the gold, the host mineral must generally be broken down chemically by oxidative processes, such as roasting, pressure oxidation or bacterial leaching, which expose the gold for subsequent recovery by ...

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New Technology for Recovery of Gold and Silver by Pressure ...

Refractory gold-silver ores contain precious metals locked up in a matrix of pyrite and/or arsenopyrite (Parga et al., 2007). Such ores ar e not amenable to cyanidation. To liberate the gold-silver from the sulfide matrix and render it accessible to cyanidation. It is a common practice to subject them to a preoxidation in order to enhance the recovery of the precious metals. Although effective ...

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Refractory ore trouble Russian gold miners - Mining

28/09/2016  Using Petropavlovsk’s proposed pressure oxidation facility as an example, the company said in 2012 it expected processing costs at its Pioneer mine of US$9.4 per tonne for non-refractory ore and US$12.3 per tonne for refractory ore. The company also budgeted US$500 million for the POX hub’s development. Not using special processing for the complex ore lodes also doesn’t seem viable ...

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Amursk Pressure Oxidation (POX) Hub Expansion Project

Challenges. Polymetal International Inc. is undertaking the Amursk POX Hub Expansion to recover gold from double-refractory (high carbon) sulphide concentrate from five of their mines in Siberia, Eastern Russia, and East Kazakhstan. The project will double Polymetal’s concentrate treatment capacity to 250,000-300,000 t/a of refractory gold concentrate.

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Abstracts Contents

serve the worldwide mining, minerals and metallurgical industries. ... PRESSURE OXIDATION OF REFRACTORY GOLD ORES: THE METATES GOLD PROJECT EXPERIENCE 203 Gary Parkison, Chesapeake Gold Corp, (Canada); Art Ibrado, M3 Engineering and Technology (USA); Grenvil Dunn, Nelson Mora, Yong Yong Teo, Orway Mineral Consultants (WA) Pty Ltd (Australia) SPECIAL ASPECTS OF CONTINUOUS PRESSURE OXIDATION

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Atmospheric alkaline pre-oxidation of refractory

Four iron-sulphide-containing gold ores from the White Mountain mine in the Jilin Province, China were studied to examine the benefits of using oxidative treatment prior to conventional cyanidation to leach gold. This pre-treatment consisted of bubbling air into an ore/water mixture for eight hours while adding enough caustic sodium hydroxide to maintain a pH of 11 throughout the test. Three ...

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Gold Mining Process Development – Denver Mineral

The common definition of “refractory” gold ores, are those ores that do not allow the recovery of gold by standard gravity concentration or direct cyanide leaching. One major category of refractory ores are gold values contained within the crystalline structure of sulfide minerals such as pyrite and arsenopyrite. For cyanide to leach gold, the cyanide solution must come into direct contact ...

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